After the decline of the Roman and Byzantine empires, the Land of Israel fell under other foreign powers: the Muslim Arabs (636-1099 CE), the Christian Crusaders (1099-1291), the Mameluks (1291-1516), the Ottoman Empire (1516-1917), and the British Mandate (1917-1948).
Despite the fact that since the second century CE most of the Jews were forced into exile, and despite the ill-treatment of the remaining Jews in the Land of Israel by the various foreign occupiers, Jewish presence in the land has been continuous, in particular in the four holy cities of Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed and Tiberias, but also in other towns and villages. By the 19th century the Jews again constituted a majority of the population of Jerusalem.
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© IDF Mapping Unit
This map is for illustrative purposes only and should not be considered authoritative.