The Romans, who conquered the kingdom of Judea in 63 BCE, appointed their Jewish ally, Herod, of Edomite extraction, as king of Judea in 37 BCE, after the last king of the Hasmonean dynasty was deposed and executed. King Herod "The Great" ruled until his death in 4 BCE. He initiated monumental construction projects, including the building of new cities and fortresses like Caesarea and Masada, and the rebuilding and expansion of the Second Temple, first erected in 516 BCE.
During Herod's reign, the Jewish kingdom enjoyed a degree of autonomous rule under the Roman Empire. After his death, the Romans tightened their control over the Jewish population. This led eventually to the Great Jewish Revolt (66-73 CE) which resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple and of Jerusalem (70 CE), and the killing or expulsion of many hundreds of thousands of Jews by the Romans.
© IDF Mapping Unit
This map is for illustrative purposes only and should not be considered authoritative.