On October 26, 1994, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Prime Minister Abdul-Salam Majali signed the
Treaty of Peace between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the second peace treaty
Israel has signed since its independence.
The peace treaty with Jordan comprises 30 articles, five annexes which address boundary demarcations,
water issues, police cooperation, environmental issues and mutual border crossings, and six maps.
The main provisions of the treaty are as follows:
1. International boundary
The Agreement delimits the agreed international boundary between Israel and Jordan including territorial
waters and airspace. This boundary is delimited with reference to the Mandate boundary and is shown on
the maps attached to the agreement. The Agreement provides for some minor mutual border modifications
which will enable Israeli farmers in the Arava to continue to cultivate their land.
The Naharayim/Baqura Area and Zofar Area will fall under Jordanian sovereignty with Israeli private
land use rights. These rights include unimpeded freedom of entry to, exit from and movement within the
area. These areas are not subject to customs or immigration legislation. These rights will remain in force
for 25 years and will be renewed automatically for the same period unless either country wishes to
terminate the arrangement, in which case consultations will be taken.
The two parties will refrain from any acts of belligerency or hostility, will ensure that no threats of
violence against the other party originate from within their territory, and undertake to take necessary and
effective measures to prevent acts of terrorism. They will also refrain from joining a coalition whose
objectives include military aggression against the other party. Israel and Jordan will abstain from hostile
propaganda and will repeal all discriminatory references and expressions of hostility in their respective
The two countries will establish a Conference on Security and Cooperation in the Middle East (CSCME)
which will be modeled after the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). This is an
ambitious attempt to replace the more classical view of security by substituting the old notions of
deterrence and military preparedness with confidence building measures. In due time, confidence will lead
to the establishment of mutual trust and institutions aimed at preventing war and enhancing
Israel and Jordan have agreed on allocations of water from the Jordan and Yarmouk Rivers and from
Araba/Arava groundwaters. Israel has agreed to transfer to Jordan 50 million cubic meters of water
annually from the northern part of the country. In addition the two countries have agreed to cooperate to
alleviate the water shortage by developing existing and new water resources, by preventing contamination
of water resources, and by minimizing water wastage.
4. Freedom of Passage
Nationals from both countries and their vehicles will be permitted freedom of movement through open
roads and border-crossings. Vessels from either country will have the right to passage through territorial
waters, and will be granted access to ports. Negotiations are underway towards a Civil Aviation
Agreement. The Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba are considered international waterways, open to all
nations for freedom of navigation and overflight.
5. Places of Historical and Religious Significance
There will be freedom of access to the places of religious and historical significance. In accordance with
the Washington Declaration, Israel respects the present special role of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
in Muslim Holy shrines in Jerusalem. When negotiations on the permanent status, as detailed in the
Declaration of Principles, will take place, Israel will give high priority to the Jordanian historic role in
6. Refugees and Displaced Persons
The parties recognize the human problems caused by the conflict in the Middle East, and agree to
alleviate them on a bilateral level and to try to resolve them through three channels:
7. Normalization of Relations between Israel and Jordan
The peace treaty deals not only with an end to war, but also normalization.
Various articles of the treaty deal with practical issues of normalization in such matters as
culture and science, the war against crime and drugs, transportation and roads, postal services and
telecommunications, tourism the environment, energy, health, agriculture, and the development of the
Jordan Rift Valley and the Aqaba/Eilat area.
Economic cooperation is seen as one of the pillars of peace, vital to the promotion of secure and
harmonious relations between the two peoples.
Diplomatic relations between Israel and Jordan were established on November 27, 1994,
including the appointment of ambassadors and the opening of embassies.
Jordan and Israel will maintain good neighborly relations by cooperating in many spheres on joint
projects. Among the projects are: development of energy and water sources, protecting the natural
environment, joint tourism development and the development of the Jordan Rift Valley.
As a result of continuing negotiations over the last year, bilateral agreements
have been signed between Israel and Jordan in the areas of tourism, environmental
cooperation, trade, police cooperation and agriculture.